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      GOOD TO KNOW

      GOOD TO KNOW:

      Common water treatment issues related to boilers, cooling plant, membrane filtration and district heating:

      Steam purity (Boilers):

      The purpose of steam boilers is to produce steam and in most cases the purity of the steam is important. Obviously when the steam is used for turbines, the steam quality/purity is essential, but also for many other applications steam quality is important, like when the steam is used in relation to food or medicine, or in sensitive industrial production processes.

      One very important aspect of steam quality/purity is related to the chemicals used to treat the steam and condensate. Hydrazine is still widely used,even though Hydrazine has been recognized as a carcinogen (cancer causing chemical). First of all Hydrazine is a problem for the persons handling (dosing) the chemical, but as hydrazine is volatile, it will go with the steam and then anyone that comes in to contact with the steam gets exposed to Hydrazine.

      However, steam quality/purity problems are often complex and might be related to the treatment of the water before it enters the system (pre-treatment).

      Problems with steam quality will cause problems for boilers, super-heaters, turbine, condenser, pipes/tubes, production equipment, etc.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers very effective solutions to improve/maintain steam quality/purity in steam boilers systems operating at pressures up to in excess of 20 MPa (200 bar), including solutions for the pre-treatment process.

      Steam quality/purity is ensured by significant reduction of Carry-over (boiler water entering the steam system) and by preventing/removing corrosion and deposits in the steam system.

      Blow-down / Water-loss (Boilers, Cooling, Membrane filtration and Heating):

      In steam boilers, (open) cooling plants and membrane filtration systems, water is blown out for mainly two reasons: To limit up-concentration of TDS (minerals and salts) and to remove accumulated dirt.

      Less blow-down equals lower water consumption, less energy consumption and increased efficiency.

      In boilers, reduction of blow-down is very important because it is expensive, very hot water that is blow-out.

      For closed systems (District heating, closed cooling, or similar), blow-down should not take place, as it will increase Oxygen (causes corrosion), TDS and Bio-matter (causes deposits) in the system.

      Better feed-water / make-up water normally makes it possible to reduce blow-down.

      Correct water treatment should offer reduction of blow-down.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers effective solutions to reduce blow-down, for all boiler systems,membrane filtration systems and open cooling systems.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers effective “0% blow-down” solutions – including part–stream filtration – for district heating systems and closed cooling systems.

      Scale / Deposits (Boilers, Cooling, Membrane filtration and Heating):

      For virtually all utility water systems, scale and deposits are issues that have to be considered very carefully.

      Normally scale is formed by a too high level of minerals in the systems, which can happen due to up-concentration, temperature changes, etc.

      Non-scale deposits might form due to corrosion, dirt, biological contamination, etc.

      Scale and deposits severely decreases efficiency, increases energy consumption, promotes corrosion, etc.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers effective solutions to prevent and remove scale and deposits, for all boiler systems, membrane filtration systems and open cooling systems, without the need to stop the systems for cleaning.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers effective “0% blow-down” solutions – including part-stream filtration – to prevent and remove scale and deposits in district heating systems and closed cooling systems.

      Corrosion (Boilers, Cooling, Membrane filtration and Heating):

      Corrosion is of great concern in all water systems. Material wiseit would maybe only be plastic that is considered immune to corrosion, but plastic is in fact sensitive to many factors (sun/UV, temperature, chemical attack, etc.).

      Corrosion is known as a reaction between metal and Oxygen, but the fact is that corrosion is much more complex than that! Ammonia, carbon dioxide and other gasses, salts and minerals, chemicals, dirt (grinding corrosion), bacteria, etc. can all be very corrosive to a great number of materials,including stainless steel, steel, copper, brass, aluminium, etc.

      Preventing, reducing and removing corrosion must always be an integral part of a water treatment program and has to be selected based on plant construction and use. Using an unsuitable water treatment solution might actually increase system corrosion and thus treatment selection has to be done very carefully.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers professional water treatment solutions and products that ensures the best possible protection against corrosion. Corrosion protection is designed based on plant construction and use (boiler,steam, open or closed system, cooling, membrane filtration, heating, etc.).

      Dirt and colloids (Boilers, Cooling, Membrane filtration and Heating):

      Colloids can be regarded as dirt that is so fine that it does not settle and might not be possible to remove without using Reverse Osmosis (RO) filtration. Fat in milk is an example of colloids, but in terms of water treatment Silica related colloids are normally the biggest problem.

      Ultra-filtration is often not able to remove colloids and thus RO plants are often susceptible to blockage by colloids. Pre-treatment by sedimentation is normally part of the solution, but target specific water treatment is often required.

      Silica is of big concern in relation to high pressure boilers, as it becomes volatile at high pressures and might cause severe Silica scale in turbines.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers treatment solutions that ensures pure steam and thus elimination of Silica scale problems in steam systems.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers treatment solutions that mobilizes sludge and dirt in boilers, cooling plants and heating systems, improving removal by blow-down or filtration.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers treatment solutions that improves colloid/Silica removal in RO systems and help prevent colloids from blocking these systems.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers treatment solutions that removes dirt from district heating systems, without the need for blow-down, thus greatly reducing dirt related problems, such as grinding corrosion.

      Bio-matter (Boilers, Cooling, Membrane filtration and Heating):

      It is well known that algae and bacteria are a problem in relation to open cooling systems. Green algae and slime is normally found in cooling towers/cooling water and slime is often found in condensers, on the side where water from open cooling systems is circulated, but often also in condensers where water from a closed system is circulated. However these are only the obvious and visible locations related to bio-fouling.

      Biological matter and bio-fouling are also severe problems, in relation to pre-treatment plants (filters, softeners, RO, UF, etc.) and often in heating plants.

      Bio-matter and bio-fouling will block plants and equipment, but it will normally also greatly reduce the efficiency of the plant, by reducing flow and by acting as an insulator.

      Even small reductions of flow in a system can decrease efficiency significantly.

      Also, bio-matter/bio-slime is in fact a much better insulator than common scale, which means that deposits of bio-matter are in fact worse in terms of efficiency loss than normal hardness scale.

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) offers effective solutions to prevent and remove bio-matter problems in boilers, cooling plants, (membrane) filters and heating systems.

      Graph, Scale layers versus increased energy consumption (Boilers, Cooling):


      Table, Water savings versus up-concentration increase (Cooling):

      Hydro-X (Qingdao) Industrial Water Treatment Co., Ltd.
      Zhuzhou Road– Laoshan District – 266101, Qingdao – Shandong Province – P.R. China
      P: +86 (0)532 88903360 – F: +86 (0)532 88903356 – info@hydrox-cn.com – www.sitopalletas.com

      Copyright 2017

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